The basis for a new crop of tomatoes is laid at the very beginning of their cultivation, conducting special seed preparation. Gardeners with experience begin to engage in seeds back in February, giving in to their special procedures for increasing the germination of sprouts and the threshold of resistance to disease, and, ultimately, for obtaining a high yield. Let us consider in detail what procedures future mature tomatoes are capable of, starting with seed germination and ending with their planting in the soil.
Sprout or not germinate
Many novice gardeners, before starting to grow tomatoes, are wondering: the need to germinate seeds before planting.
Proper preparation of seedlings will ensure a fertile harvest, tasty fruits, as well as eliminate possible diseases. There are a number of factors that can lead to the death of the planting material even before its emergence:
- infection on the seeds themselves;
- soil infection;
- increased soil density and oversaturation with salts;
- deep seeding;
- excessive moisture;
- dangerous pests.
In order to avoid such problems, the seeds are better prepared in a special way, providing them with a more stable immunity. Sprouting plays an important role in this.
Important! If you germinate the seeds properly before sowing, the yield can increase up to 30 percent.
And this is not an exaggeration, especially if it is sown directly in the ground, when there is a danger of harming insects. In this case, the germinated seedlings sprout much faster, and the pests do not have time to attack the unacceptable material.
What you need to know about the choice of seeds
Before you begin to prepare the seeds for planting, they need to choose the right. There are several points that are worth paying attention to when buying seedlings:
- climatic conditions (tomato varieties may differ in cultivation in certain regions);
- manufacturer (imported varieties may not settle down in our weather conditions);
- shelf life;
- F1 sign (means disease resistance and yield);
- purpose of the seed (for greenhouse conditions or garden);
- early or late varieties (depending on the harvest period).
Also, tomato varieties differ in their purpose. So, for eating fresh vegetables, it’s better to choose a juicy variety called Bull Heart with fleshy pulp or the versatile Moskvich, and for canning you should plant Lady fingers (with dense pulp and strong skin).
What is needed soil for seedlings of tomatoes
An important role in the cultivation of tomatoes is played by a properly selected soil composition. There are two options: buy a ready-made universal mix in the store or prepare it yourself, which most experienced gardeners prefer to do. Therefore, in order to grow a good crop of tomatoes from seeds at home, you need to start with the preparation of high-quality soil.
Did you know? About 60 million tons of tomatoes are grown in the world every year..
Preparation is best to do in the fall. Soil should contain such a standard set of components: land from the garden mixed with sand and peat, with the addition of humus and wood ash. Land from the garden is taken from the site where tomatoes, potatoes and other solanaceous crops did not grow last season.
The mixture will be optimal in composition if you combine 1 portion of land with 2 portions of peat, 1 portion of compost and half a portion of sand. In order to dilute high-acid fluorine, 200 g of ash, 10 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium are added to the mixture bucket. At different periods of growth of seedlings, the soil composition is adjusted. So, at the initial stage of soil preparation, more sand and less compost are put into it. Then it is sifted and subjected to disinfection.
Tomatos suitable more loose soil with easy access of air and moisture. For greater breathability, sphagnum moss or any baking powder is added. This makes it possible to develop better roots.
Gardeners with experience prefer seedlings in the form of sawdust and sand (in a ratio of 2: 1). In this embodiment, the sawdust can be impregnated with mineral fertilizers with all the nutrients. At the same time sawdust serve as a baking powder for soil.
Seed preparation for planting seedlings
Preparatory procedures for seeds require a lot of time and special attention, because it is on their proper conduct that a high yield depends. Such measures include: sorting of seeds, heating, processing, soaking, germination and hardening. Let us examine in more detail with each of the methods and learn how to germinate tomatoes from seeds at home for seedlings.
Seed preparation for planting begin in February. The first thing to do is to inspect their appearance. Here is the rule: more is better. Large seeds contain more essential substances. From them sprout large tomatoes. To select high-quality seeds, they are placed in a special solution prepared from salt and left for a few minutes. Seeds that rise to the top as a result of this procedure are considered unsuitable, and those that have fallen to the bottom are dried and left for further processing.
The warming up stage is necessary only for those grains that were in the cold in winter. Before planting them for about a month, the material is placed in a tissue container and heated for 7 days, gradually increasing the temperature. The procedure starts at a temperature of +20 degrees and ends at +80 degrees.
At home, a battery is best for warming up. It is enough to leave the seeds for three days.
Did you know? The size of the fruits of the smallest varieties of tomatoes in diameter reaches less than 2 cm.
Hybrid tomatoes do not need such manipulation at all.
Since pathogenic bacteria can be found on the seeds, it is advisable to disinfect them. This will help avoid collisions with seedling contamination. For pickling use a solution of manganese. Seeds are placed in a 1% solution and kept for about 20 minutes. Manganese can be replaced with diluted hydrogen peroxide, preheated. In this solution, the planting material is soaked for 10 minutes. The stage of disinfection ends with the treatment with necessary preparations. Epin or Immunocytofit, sodium humate or folk remedy in the form of aloe juice are perfect for this.
Seeds are placed in a transparent container with impregnation and put in a warm place for a day. After processing, dry them thoroughly and proceed to the next step.
Before germinating tomatoes from seeds, it is desirable to soak them. For this purpose, take a glass jar or a plastic box with warm water. Seedlings while wrapped in cheesecloth and placed in a container. Water should not completely cover the grain (preferably half).
We advise you to familiarize yourself with such varieties of tomatoes as: "Malachite Box", "Lazyka", "Hundred Poods", "Superbomb", "Stolypin", "King of London", "Collective Farm Yield", "Labrador", "Caspar", " Niagara, Red Red, Cardinal, Sugar Bison, Red Guard, Gina, Rapunzel, Samara, Little Red Riding Hood, Mikado Pink, Kiss of Geranium and Golden heart".
The whole process must be allocated 12 hours. In this case, the water should be changed 3 times.
Gauze with seeds also periodically need to get out of the water so that they breathe oxygen.
Soaking smoothly turns into sprouting future tomatoes. It promotes plant growth and guarantees an earlier harvest. For this procedure, the seeds are spread on a plate covered with moistened gauze or soft damp paper.
Important! The room during germination should be warm (about +20 degrees).
At the same time it is important to maintain balance and ensure that the fabric does not dry out and is not too wet.
Before germinating tomatoes from seeds, it is advisable to harden them. Since tomatoes are a heat-loving crop, hardening will help them adapt more easily to adverse weather conditions. Seedlings from such prepared seeds better cope with temperature changes, and tomatoes grow much faster. Bushes obtained from hardened seeds, bloom earlier and give yields 40-50% more.
The principle of this procedure is that the seedlings are affected by different temperatures. First, the germinated seeds are placed in the refrigerator and kept there for 12 hours. The temperature is no higher than +2 degrees. After that, within 12 hours, the grains are heated at +20 degrees.
Did you know? In some countries, a tomato is called an apple. The French called it "the apple of love", and the Germans - "paradise apple".
It is enough to carry out the procedure 2-3 times for a tangible effect.
How to germinate tomato seeds in seedlings in toilet paper
The way of sprouting tomatoes from seeds in toilet paper can be safely attributed to modern know-how. The positive points are obvious:
- the ability to avoid seed diseases;
- minimum required space;
- the ability to identify the strongest sprouts.
There are several options for such germination with their positive and negative points. 1st method. With a plastic bottle. This is the easiest and fastest option. The bottle should be cut lengthwise and put the paper moistened with water on the bottom. On it to distribute seedlings. The bottle is covered with a plastic bag, creating a semblance of a greenhouse. And be sure to make holes in it for oxygen. The container is best placed in the sun.
This method clearly demonstrates how to germinate tomatoes from seeds in toilet paper quickly and easily. The method is very convenient because it does not require watering, since a greenhouse effect is formed in an enclosed space. Sprouts should appear on the third day.
Familiarize yourself with such methods of growing tomatoes: in a snail, on a hydroponnik, on a windowsill, growing tomatoes according to the method of Maslov and Terekhins.
2nd way. With oilcloth. The oilcloth needs to be cut into strips 10 cm wide, put wetted paper on them. Grains spread out on top at a distance of about 4 cm from each other. In the next layer, repeat the paper and oilcloth. The whole "design" gently roll and roll with a rubber band. All bundles should be placed in a container with water (about two fingers from the bottom) and, as in the first embodiment, covered with a bag. 3rd way. Lined under laminate. This option is similar to the previous one, only a more porous laminate lining is used. Similarly, "rolls" knit and put in the water. As soon as the tomatoes sprout, they are planted in the ground.
The term germination of tomato seeds
The answer to the question, after how many days the seeds of tomatoes sprout on the seedlings, is of concern to many beginning vegetable growers. This is not surprising, since knowing this information, you can clearly set the time when you need to sow seedlings.
Seedlings of tomatoes have almost the same germination period. Dry grains, when planted in open ground, will grow no earlier than after 10 days.
You can speed up this process, if you give the material a special treatment with soaking, changing temperatures and other things. In this case, the seeds will turn for 5 ± 1 or 7 ± 1 day depending on the variety and quality. But at the same time the temperature should be maintained at a level not lower than +20 degrees. In cold air, the germination period is delayed for several days.
Important! Pay attention to the depth of landing. The deeper the seed in the ground, the longer it will make its way to the light.
Terms of planting tomato seeds
To seedlings of tomatoes at home gave a bountiful harvest, it is important to choose the right period when it is favorable to sow the seeds. In this matter, the lunar calendar will come to the rescue. Suitable for growing vegetables for seedlings are the days when the young moon is influenced by signs that favor fertility, namely: Cancer, Libra, Scorpio, Pisces or Aries.
If these days for some reason it was not possible to plant the tomatoes, there are still conditionally favorable days in the lunar calendar, which can also be used for sowing.
Before planting seeds in open ground, for the beginning they are placed at home in a container with the ground. In each cup, only one seed is dipped approximately to a depth of 1 centimeter and periodically watered.
It is better to plant already sprouted seedlings, which after soaking in 5-7 days appear sprouts. After that they are transferred to containers with soil. Further care requires timely watering before transplantation into the greenhouse or vegetable garden.
Disembarkation should be done very carefully so as not to damage the roots of the seedlings. At the same time it is very important to observe the temperature regime and air it in time to avoid the appearance of a black leg.
If you adhere to such rules, the appearance of germs will not take long.
Landing in the soil
When planting tomatoes in a greenhouse or open ground need to focus on the climatic conditions and the area where they will grow. If you take into account the generally accepted time, then planted seedlings in greenhouses made in the first half of March (up to 15 numbers), under the film in open ground - in the second part of March - early April. Tomatoes are planted in open ground, as a rule, in June.
Before planting, a pair of lower leaves should be cut off so that they can be slightly deepened. Seedlings need to pull out of the pot and with a lump of earth in which it grew, move into the hole. Pre-ground in the recess must be fertilized. One tablespoon of special fertilizers, for example, Signor Tomato, is enough. It is necessary to deepen the stem in the ground by 10-15 cm. Before falling asleep a hole, the plant is laid on its side and watered abundantly several times. Water must penetrate deep into the soil so that the roots of the tomatoes tend to follow it. Next, the pit is covered with earth, and the seedlings lie for some time, so that the stem does not sink deep into the cold soil.
Tomatoes do not grow well, if in their place previously grown eggplant, pepper or cabbage. Such garden crops as cucumbers, corn, legumes and cabbage are considered to be good predecessors of tomatoes.
After sprinkling with earth, the plant is tied to a peg. Watering the top is no longer necessary to avoid the appearance of a crust.
To preserve moisture, planted tomatoes should be mulched peat.
After that, it remains only to water them, in time to feed and wait for the harvest.
What to do if tomato seeds do not germinate
It is not uncommon for sown seeds to remain in the ground without sprouts. This is a call to pay attention to possible mistakes made when sowing.
- What could delay the germination of seedlings and how to fix it.
- Low temperature for the appearance of sprouts. At the optimum temperature of +21 degrees, an error of several degrees prevents the seeds from breaking out. This can be corrected by creating favorable temperature conditions.
- High humidity of the earth. In wet soil, planting material may suffocate from lack of oxygen. In this case, you should pay special attention to the quality of the earth mixture, as well as reduce watering.
- Great sowing depth. In this case, the seedlings are hard to break up and they die. The optimum depth is 1-1.5 cm. Watering should be carried out before sowing, and not after, so that the material does not deepen even more.
Did you know? In nature, there are more than 10,000 species of tomatoes.
With a properly maintained procedure of planting seeds for seedlings, subsequent timely planting in the ground and proper care, you will definitely get a high-quality and rich harvest of tasty tomatoes.